Started as a firm of civil engineers in Singapore in 1887. An important early partner was R.A.J. Bidwell, who joined the firm from the Public Works Department of the Federated Malay States. Denis Santry was another key designer. In addition to the monuments covered here, architects from the Firm designed Raffles Hotel (1899), the Teutonia Club (now Goodwood Park Hotel)(1901), Victoria Memorial Hall (1905), and the Singapore Turf Club (1934).